Publications

CORE is based on science and the research papers below are a selection of the papers that were used to develop the software and underlying algorithms.

Carbohydrate requirements

 

Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29 Suppl 1:S17-27. Download full paper

 

Carter J, Jeukendrup AE, Mundel T, Jones DA. Carbohydrate supplementation improves moderate and high-intensity exercise in the heat. Pflugers Arch. 2003 May;446(2):211-9.

 

Carter JM, Jeukendrup AE, Jones DA. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on 1-h cycle time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2107-11.

 

Hulston CJ, Jeukendrup AE. Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Dec;40(12):2096-104.

 

Hulston CJ, Jeukendrup AE. No placebo effect from carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Jun;19(3):275-84.

 

Hulston CJ, Wallis GA, Jeukendrup AE. Exogenous CHO oxidation with glucose plus fructose intake during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Feb;41(2):357-63.

 

Jentjens RL, Venables MC, Jeukendrup AE. Oxidation of exogenous glucose, sucrose and maltose during prolonged cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2003 Dec 2.

 

Jentjens RL, Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. High oxidation rates from combined carbohydrates ingested during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Sep;36(9):1551-8.

 

Jentjens RL, Jeukendrup AE. High rates of exogenous carbohydrate oxidation from a mixture of glucose and fructose ingested during prolonged cycling exercise. Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr;93(4):485-92.

 

Jeukendrup AE, Moseley L. Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):112-21.

 

Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jul;13(4):452-7.

 

Jeukendrup AE. Nutrition and endurance sports: running, cycling, triathlon. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S91-9.

 

Jeukendrup AE. Oral carbohydrate rinse: placebo or beneficial? Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013 Jul-Aug;12(4):222-7.

 

Jeukendrup A. The new carbohydrate intake recommendations. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013;75:63-71.

 

Jeukendrup A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S25-33. Download full paper

 

Jeukendrup AE. Training the Gut for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47(Suppl 1):101-10.

 

Wallis GA, Dawson R, Achten J, Webber J, Jeukendrup AE. Metabolic response to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise in males and females. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;290(4):E708-15.

 

Wallis GA, Yeo SE, Blannin AK, Jeukendrup AE. Dose-response effects of ingested carbohydrate on exercise metabolism in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jan;39(1):131-8.

 

Pfeiffer B, Stellingwerff T, Zaltas E, Jeukendrup AE. CHO oxidation from a CHO gel compared with a drink during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Nov;42(11):2038-45.

 

Pfeiffer B, Stellingwerff T, Zaltas E, Jeukendrup AE. Oxidation of solid versus liquid CHO sources during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Nov;42(11):2030-7.

 

Fluid requirements

 

Baker LB, Jeukendrup AE. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages. Compr Physiol. 2014 Apr;4(2):575-620.

 

McCartney D, Desbrow B, Irwin C. The Effect of Fluid Intake Following Dehydration on Subsequent Athletic and Cognitive Performance: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med Open. 2017 Dec;3(1):13. Download full paper

Jeukendrup AE, Currell K, Clarke J, Cole J, Blannin AK. Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009;6:9.

 

Jeukendrup AE, Moseley L. Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):112-21.

 

Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, Watson P. Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):604S-12S.

 

Montain SJ, Coyle EF. Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992;73(4):1340-50.

 

Neufer PD, Young AJ, Sawka MN. Gastric emptying during exercise: effects of heat stress and hypohydration. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1989;58(4):433-9.

 

Rehrer NJ, Beckers EJ, Brouns F, ten Hoor F, Saris WHM. Effects of dehydration on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal distress while running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(6):790-5.

 

Ryan AJ, Lambert GP, Shi X, Chang RT, Summers RW, Gisolfi CV. Effect of hypohydration on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1998;84(5):1581-8.

 

Sawka MN. Physiological consequences of hypohydration: exercise performance and thermoregulation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(6):657-70.

 

Sawka MN, Greenleaf JE. Current concepts concerning thirst, dehydration, and fluid replacement: overview. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(6):643-4.

 

Cheuvront SN, Carter R, 3rd, Sawka MN. Fluid balance and endurance exercise performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2003 Aug;2(4):202-8.

 

Gonzalez RR, Cheuvront SN, Ely BR, Moran DS, Hadid A, Endrusick TL, et al. Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Apr;112(8):1300-10.

 

Shirreffs SM, Armstrong AA, Cheuvront SN. Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and compitition. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:57-63.

 

Hyponatremia 

Armstrong LE, Curtis WC, Hubbard RW, Francesconi RP, Moore R, Askew EW. Symptomatic hyponatremia during prolonged exercise in heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(5):543-9.

 

Hew-Butler T, Ayus JC, Kipps C, Maughan RJ, Mettler S, Meeuwisse WH, et al. Statement of the Second International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, New Zealand, 2007. Clin J Sport Med. 2008 Mar;18(2):111-21.

 

Speedy DB, Noakes TD, Rogers IR, Thompson JM, Campbell RG, Kuttner JA, et al. Hyponatremia in ultradistance triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(6):809-15.

 

Speedy DB, Rogers IR, Noakes TD, Thompson JMD, Guirey J, Safih S, et al. Diagnosis and prevention of hyponatremia at an ultradistance triathlon. Clin J Sports Med. 2000;10:52-8.

Gastro-intestinal problems

 

Rehrer NJ, Beckers EJ, Brouns F, ten Hoor F, Saris WHM. Effects of dehydration on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal distress while running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(6):790-5.

 

de Oliveira EP, Burini RC. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011;8:12.

 

de Oliveira EP, Burini RC, Jeukendrup A. Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S79-85. Download full paper

 

Fogoros RN. Runner's trots. Gastrointestinal disturbances in runners. JAMA. 1980;243:1743-4.

 

Halvorsen F-E, Ritland S. Gastrointestinal problems related to endurance event training. Sports Med. 1992;14(3):157-63.

 

Nieuwenhoven MA, Brouns F, Kovacs EMR. The effect of sports drinks on performance and gastrointestinal complaints during running. 2001.

 

Rehrer NJ, Janssen GME, Brouns F, Saris WHM. Fluid intake and gastrointestinal problems in runners competing in a 25-km race and a marathon. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10:S22-S5.

 

Rehrer NJ, Brouns F, Beckers EJ, Frey WO, Villiger B, Riddoch CJ, et al. Physiological changes and gastro-intestinal symptoms as a result of ultra-endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1992;64:1-8.

 

Rehrer NJ, van Kemenade M, Meester W, Brouns F, Saris WH. Gastrointestinal complaints in relation to dietary intake in triathletes. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992;2(1):48-59.

 

Rehrer NJ, Brouns F, Beckers EJ, Saris WHM. The influence of beverage composition and gastrointestinal function on fluid and nutrient availability during exercise. A review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1994;4:159-72.

 

Riddoch C, Trinick T. Gastrointestinal disturbances in marathon runners. Brit J Sports Med. 1988;22(2):71-4.

 

Sharman IM. Gastrointestinal distrubances in runners. Brit J Sports Med. 1982;16(3):179.

 

Sullivan SN. The gastrointestinal symptoms of running. N Eng J Med. 1981;304(15):915.

 

ter Steege RW, Van der Palen J, Kolkman JJ. Prevalence of gastrointestinal complaints in runners competing in a long-distance run: an internet-based observational study in 1281 subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(12):1477-82.

 

Ter Steege RW, Geelkerken RH, Huisman AB, Kolkman JJ. Abdominal symptoms during physical exercise and the role of gastrointestinal ischaemia: a study in 12 symptomatic athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Oct 20.

 

ter Steege RW, Kolkman JJ. Review article: the pathophysiology and management of gastrointestinal symptoms during physical exercise, and the role of splanchnic blood flow. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Mar;35(5):516-28.

 

Van Nieuwenhoven MA, Brummer RM, Brouns F. Gastrointestinal function during exercise: comparison of water, sports drink, and sports drink with caffeine. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89(3):1079-85.

 

van Nieuwenhoven MA, Brouns F, Brummer RJ. Gastrointestinal profile of symptomatic athletes at rest and during physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Apr;91(4):429-34.

 

Caffeine

Graham TE. Caffeine, coffee and ephedrine: impact on exercise performance and metabolism. Can J Appl Physiol. 2001;26 Suppl:S103-19.

 

Hulston CJ, Jeukendrup AE. Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Dec;40(12):2096-104.

 

Spriet LL. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Sports Med. 2014 Nov;44 Suppl 2:S175-84. Download full paper

 

Yeo SE, Jentjens RL, Wallis GA, Jeukendrup AE. Caffeine increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Sep;99(3):844-50.

 

Hodgson AB, Randell RK, Jeukendrup AE. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e59561. 

 

Pasman WJ, van Baak MA, Jeukendrup AE, de Haan A. The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time. Int J Sports Med. 1995 May;16(4):225-30.

Review papers

Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29 Suppl 1:S17-27. Download full paper

 

Jeukendrup AE, Moseley L. Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):112-21.

 

Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jul;13(4):452-7.

 

Jeukendrup AE. Nutrition and endurance sports: running, cycling, triathlon. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S91-9. Download full paper

 

Jeukendrup AE. Oral carbohydrate rinse: placebo or beneficial? Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013 Jul-Aug;12(4):222-7.

 

Jeukendrup A. The new carbohydrate intake recommendations. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013;75:63-71.

 

Jeukendrup A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S25-33. Download full paper

 

Jeukendrup AE, McLaughlin J. Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: effects on performance, training adaptations and trainability of the gut. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2011;69:1-12; discussion 3-7.

 

Jeukendrup AE, Moseley L. Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008

 

Stellingwerff T, Cox GR. Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Sep;39(9):998-1011.

 

Jeukendrup AE. Periodized Nutrition for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47 (Suppl 1):51-63. Download full paper

 

Jeukendrup AE. Training the Gut for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47(Suppl 1):101-10. Download full paper

Personalized nutrition

Jeukendrup A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S25-33. Download full paper

Periodised nutrition

 

Jeukendrup AE. Periodized Nutrition for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47 (Suppl 1):51-63. Download full paper

 

Sweat rate predictions

 

Gonzalez RR, Cheuvront SN, Ely BR, Moran DS, Hadid A, Endrusick TL, et al. Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Apr;112(8):1300-10. Download full paper

 

Training the gut

 

Jeukendrup AE. Training the Gut for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47(Suppl 1):101-10. Download full paper

 

Cox GR, Clark SA, Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, et al. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Jul;109(1):126-34. 

 

Jeukendrup AE, McLaughlin J. Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: effects on performance, training adaptations and trainability of the gut. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2011;69:1-12; discussion 3-7.